The Panchakarma treatment contains three stages Purva karma (Pre-treatment), Pradhama karma (Primary-treatment) and Paschath karma (After-treatment).These three stages are must followed by the patient who choose any one of the five therapies.
Purva Karma (Pre-treatment) Snehana (Oil therapy), massage and fomentation therapy these are the Purva karma treatments. The sneha is given with herbs is to help a particular patient's disease. If sneha is given without adding herbs is called achcha sneha. This type of treatment is more powerfull. The maximum days of snehana treatment is seven days and this conducted in early morning. Oil massage (abhyangha) is an important treatment in ayurveda. The procedure of these treatments is two therapists massage on either side of the patients who lies on a wooden bed. Depending on the disease svedana is given to the patient for cleaning the whole part of the body. Svedana is conducted for amplify channels in the body to facilitate the movement of the ama towards the koshta. Fomentation covers both dry and sticky materials (snigha dravyas). After this treatment doshas will be liquefied. Svedana conducted after abhyanga. After completing all these treatments the patients will ready for the next stage that is vamana and other procedures. Pradhana Karma (Primary treatment)
Vamana (Emesis or Vomiting), Virechana (Purging), Vasti(therapeutic enema), Nasya(nasal therapy)and rahtamokshana these are the primary treatment and this itself called Pancha karma. Vamana Karma (Vomiting) This treatment is used for correcting the kapha imbalance. Before this treatment the patient conducted abhyanga (oil massage) and taking Ghee in diet that is kaphagenic diet is prescribed for the patient. By applying this Kapha in the body will be aggravated. Vamana Karma is used for Kapha imbalance like Bronchitis, Cold, Cough, Asthma, Sinus, & Excess mucus. Vamana is emesis therapy, expelling doshas through mouth. By applying Snehana and swedana the toxins and vitiated doshas transported to stomach (amashaya). By conducting Vamana these toxins and vitiated doshas blow out through mouth. Vamana karma is conducted in early morning and not conducted in empty stomach. If you want to know more about this, check out Ayurveda.
Virechana Karma (Therapeutic Purgation) This treatment is used for pitta disorders. Virechana is conducted to eliminate excess toxins and vitiated doshas through purgation. Skin disorders, Acidity, Heart burn, Peptic ulcer, Jaundice, Intestinal parasites these are controlled by conducting virechana. Toxins and vitiated doshas from blood, liver and intestines are expelled by conducted virechana. After completing snehana and swedana virechana applied for the patient and the time will be around 8-9 am. Patients who have pitta dosha disorders like Skindiseases, jaundice, constipation, headache, fistula, hemorrhoids, intestinal parasites, herpes, anemia, edema etc suggested this therapy.
Vasti Karma (Enema) This treatment is used for vatha disorders like Chronic Constipation, bloated stomach, gases, malnourished people, sexual disorders, constipation, backache, Spinal pain. In Panchakarma vasti karma is most important. Nirooha Vasti and Anuvasan Vasti are the two types of vasti karma depend upon the body type. In Nirooha vasti herbal decoction is used. But in Anuvasan vasti herbal oil is used. By conducting vasti karma toxins and vitiated doshas removed through anus. The meaning of vasti is urinary bladder. In older times the apparatus of vasti karma is prepared with urinary bladder of animals so this treatment is called vasti karma.
Nasal treatment In this treatment the liquid herbal preparations or medicated oils pours through nose. This treatment is known as Shirovirechana. During this therapy the toxins and vitiated doshas removed through nose and mouth. Nasya karma is conducted for the diseases like tonsillitis, stiff neck, stiff jaw, headache, sinusitis, stammering etc.
Raktamokshana (therapeautic bloodletting) In this treatment the vitiated blood removed from the different parts of the body. Raktamokshana is classified in to two. By Sastra prayoga and By Anusastra prayoga. For Pachchana used surgical instruments .leech application is another method of raktamokshana. For more info, visit Ayurveda.